Flourish. Enter CAESAR; ANTONY, for the course; CALPURNIA, PORTIA, DECIUS BRUTUS, CICERO, BRUTUS, CASSIUS, and CASCA; a great crowd. Since their composition four hundred years ago, Shakespeare's plays and poems have Caesar's assassination is just the halfway point of Julius Caesar. We need your donations. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare The Tragedy of Julius Caesar . Triumvir after Caesar's death, later Augustus Caesar, first emperor of Rome. Mark Antony. He loves no plays,. As thou dost, Antony; .

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buverfitaro.cf Seriously, though, we took the day off to see Caesar, sir, and .. Trumpets play offstage, and then a shout is heard. Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written It is one of several plays written by Shakespeare based on true events from. Julius Caesar is an excellent choice of reading material for senior high school students. exploration of the play's timeless themes and social issues. One of the.

Romeo and Juliet William Shakespeare. Macbeth William Shakespeare. King John William Shakespeare. A street. Is this a holiday? Speak, what trade art thou? First Commoner Why, sir, a carpenter. What dost thou with thy best apparel on? You, sir, what trade are you? Second Commoner Truly, sir, in respect of a fine workman, I am but, as you would say, a cobbler.

Second Commoner A trade, sir, that, I hope, I may use with a safe conscience; which is, indeed, sir, a mender of bad soles. Second Commoner Nay, I beseech you, sir, be not out with me: Second Commoner Why, sir, cobble you. Second Commoner Truly, sir, all that I live by is with the awl: I meddle with no tradesman's matters, nor women's matters, but with awl.

I am, indeed, sir, a surgeon to old shoes; when they are in great danger, I recover them. As proper men as ever trod upon neat's leather have gone upon my handiwork. Why dost thou lead these men about the streets? Second Commoner Truly, sir, to wear out their shoes, to get myself into more work. But, indeed, sir, we make holiday, to see Caesar and to rejoice in his triumph.

What conquest brings he home? Without a cure or an understanding of what transmitted the disease, physicians could do nothing to stop the thousands of deaths that resulted from each outbreak. London life In the sixteenth century, London, though small compared to modern cities, was the largest city of Europe, with a population of about , inhabitants in the city and surrounding suburbs. London was a crowded city without a sewer system, which facilitated epidemics such as the plague.

In addition, crime rates were high in the city due to inefficient law enforcement and the lack of street lighting. Despite these drawbacks, London was the cultural, political, and social heart of England. Not surprisingly, a young Shakespeare moved to London to begin his professional career.

The theatre Most theatres were not actually located within the city of London.

These restrictions stemmed from a mistrust of public performances as locations of plague and riotous behavior. Furthermore, because theatre performances took place during the day, they took laborers away from their jobs. Opposition to the theatres also came from Puritans who believed that they fostered immorality.

Therefore, theatres moved out of the city, to areas near other sites of restricted activities, such as dog fighting, bear- and bull-baiting, and prostitution. Despite the move, the theatre was not free from censorship or regulation. In fact, a branch of the government known as the Office of the Revels attempted to ensure that plays did not present politically or socially sensitive material. Prior to each performance, the Master of the Revels would read a complete text of each play, cutting out offending sections or, in some cases, not approving the play for public performance.

The recently reconstructed Globe Theatre. They were usually open-air, relying heavily on natural light and good weather. The rectangular stage extended out into an area that people called the pit — a circular, uncovered area about 70 feet in diameter. Audience members had two choices when downloading admission to a theatre. Admission to the pit, where the lower classes or groundlings stood for the Shakespeare in Love shows how the interior of the Globe would have appeared.

However, indoor theity, a public theatre in Early Modern England could atres, such as the Blackfriars, differed slightly because hold between 2, and 3, people. Because only the wealthy could afford the cost raised about five feet above it, had a covered portion of admission, the public generally considered these called the heavens.

The heavens enclosed theatrical theatres private. A trapdoor in the middle of the stage William Shakespeare and was an example of the type provided theatrical graves for characters such as of outdoor theatre described above.

At each end of the wall before , he had the old theatre dismantled and stood a door for major entrances and exits. Above rebuilt in Southwark, just outside London. The the wall and doors stood a gallery directly above the newly rebuilt Globe opened to audiences in the midstage, reserved for the wealthiest spectators.

Actors dle of and some scholars believe that Julius occasionally used this area when a performance called Caesar was the first play to be performed in the new for a difference in height — for example, to repretheatre. A good example of this type of theatre was the original X Intro.

However, theatre companies developed their costumes with great care and expense. These extravagant costumes were the object of much controversy because some aristocrats feared that the actors could use them to disguise their social status on the streets of London.

Young boys whose voices had not reached maturity played female parts. Though historians have managed to reconstruct the appearance of the early modern theatre, such as the recent construction of the Globe in London, much of the information regarding how plays were performed during this era has been lost. Scholars of Early Modern theatre have turned to the scant external and internal stage directions in manuscripts in an effort to find these answers.

Although a hindrance for modern critics and scholars, the lack of detail about Early Modern performances has allowed modern directors and actors a great deal of flexibility and room to be creative. The printing press If not for the printing press, many Early Modern plays may not have survived until today.

For example, a folio required folding the sheet once, a quarto four times, an octavo eight, and so on. Sheets would be printed one side at a time; thus, printers had to simultaneously print multiple nonconsecutive pages. In order to estimate what section of the text would be on each page, the printer would cast off copy. After the printer made these estimates, compositors would set the type upside down, letter by letter.

This process of setting type produced textual errors, some of which a proofreader would catch. When a proofreader found an error, the compositors would fix the piece or pieces of type. Printers called corrections made after printing began stop-press corrections because they literally had to stop the press to fix the error.

Because of the high cost of paper, printers would still sell the sheets printed before they made the correction. Printers placed frames of text in the bed of the printing press and used them to imprint the paper. They then folded and grouped the sheets of paper into gatherings, after which the pages were ready for sale. The downloader had the option of getting the new play bound.

The inconsistent and scant appearance of stage directions, for example, makes it difficult to determine how close this relationship was. Theatre was a collaborative environment. Rather than lament our inability to determine authorship and what exactly Shakespeare wrote, we should work to understand this collaborative nature and learn from it.

Based on the number of stage directions included in the script, the compositors were most likely working from a theatrical prompt book or a copy of that document. Shakespeare wrote his plays for the stage, and the existing published texts reflect the collaborative nature of the theatre as well as the unavoidable changes made during the printing process. From there, a scribe would recopy the play and produce a fair copy. The theatre manager would then copy out and annotate this copy into a playbook what people today call a promptbook.

At this point, scrolls of individual parts were copied out for actors to memorize. Due to the high cost of paper, theatre companies could not afford to provide their actors with a complete copy of the play.

The government required the company to send the playbook to the Master of the Revels, the government official who would make any necessary changes or mark any passages considered unacceptable for performance. Printers could have used any one of these copies to print a play. Works cited For more information regarding Early Modern England, consult the following works: Updated Fourth edition.

Greenblatt, Stephen. The Victorians found a stoic, sympathetic character in Brutus and found Caesar unforgivably weak and tyrannical. The person who committed the first murder, regardless of personal honor or motives, was doomed from the beginning. Julius Caesar, a play that deals with actual historical events, differs somewhat from the plays that Shakespeare wrote about English history.

But Julius Caesar consists of one illegitimate act after another. Caesar overthrows Pompey and damages the republic. Brutus and the other conspirators plot to assassinate Caesar, mob rule is tolerated, Antony instructs Octavius in Machiavellian ethics and the play ends with Octavius positioning for authority, with civil war imminent. Blank verse is a form of poetry in iambic pentameter. Each line has ten syllables — five unstressed syllables alternating with five stressed syllables.

Occasionally, a word that is usually pronounced as one syllable is accompanied by a grave accent. The accent is an indication that the word should be spoken with two syllables. During the Renaissance, there was a rekindling of interest in ancient Roman literature and art. Thus, the subject matter was of great interest to Elizabethan audiences. Shakespeare wrote a total of four plays set in ancient Rome. The play was first performed, and thus, thought to have been written, in and may have been the premier show of the newly rebuilt Globe Theatre.

This date is based on the journal of a Swiss traveler, Thomas Platter, who was visiting England between September 18 and October 20, , and attended two plays. The text of Julius Caesar, as it appears in the Folio, is relatively errorfree and has the reputation of being the least corrupt text printed in the Folio.

Because the play is so rich X Intro. A prompt book is a copy of the text used by the stage manager of a theatre. It is marked with character entrances and exits, blocking, props, and special effects such as offstage shouts, music, or sounds of thunder and lightening. It was reprinted in with minimal changes and again in with the addition of the life of Octavius Caesar. Because Plutarch was as interested in the moral characteristics of his subjects as he was in the historical facts, Shakespeare found very useful information in the stories that would translate well onto the theatrical stage.

Being the consummate playwright, however, Shakespeare was able to embellish the stories adding compressed action, heightened drama, and powerful speeches as well as internal and external conflict. Performance history The first performance of Julius Caesar occurred in The play was extremely popular with the original audience and Leonard Digges wrote about the enthusiastic audiences for the play as late as the s.

There is proof that the play was performed at Whitehall in and , at Saint James in January of and at the Cock Pit in the same year. The play was performed for Charles I in and remained an audience favorite right up to when the theatres were closed because of the English Civil War.

When Charles II was restored to the throne in , the theatres were reopened. With many changes to the script and alterations to the major characters, Julius Caesar continued to draw audiences into the theatre.

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Everett Collection From to the character of Brutus took center stage in productions of the play. Famous actors of the time, such as Thomas Betterton, Barton Booth, and James Quin all took their turns playing the character that was being performed as the stoical and dignified hero of the play.

The text was often altered so that Caesar became a frightening tyrant and the character of Antony was restructured to be a freedom fighter, played by such luminaries as Edward Kynaston, Robert Wilks, and William Milward.

The play was often cut and rearranged to make the focus of the play a battle between good and evil or ambition and liberty. During the years of —, Julius Caesar was revived almost every year with performances in London.

Julius Caesar Short Summary

The play, appealing to the ideals of the early American settlers, was first performed in America on June 1, , in Philadelphia. An advertisement for the play read: President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by a member of one of the most famous acting families of the time, John Wilkes Booth. Great scenic spectacles that prided themselves on realistic sets, lavish costumes, and huge crowds of people on stage as opposed to focusing on the content of the script being performed dominated the theatre in the early nineteenth century.

Macready, who played at one time or another both Brutus and Cassius, maintained the grandiose style of Kemble and Tree but, seeing the richness of the characters as drawn by Shakespeare, began to play the men as written with both their positive and negative qualities.

Modern producers and directors became aware of the contemporary nature of the themes in Julius Caesar and productions of the twentieth century reflected that discovery. The crowds have at times become Nazi rallies and audiences have actually been encouraged to participate as members of the mob in several productions.

Criticism The first critics, writing at the end of the seventeenth century, were not kind to Julius Caesar. If Julius Caesar, as written by Shakespeare, was the hero of the play, he was, at best, a deficient hero. Samuel Johnson exonerated the play in his Preface of and Herman Ulrici, writing in , found a thematic unity to the play never acknowledged before.

Julius Caesar

This led to a renewed interest in the play by critics in the nineteenth century. In the early twentieth century, critics such as M. In the latter part of the twentieth century, the play and its political overtones underwent scrutiny by both the New Historicists and the Cultural Materialists.

Coppelia Kahn in her book, Roman Shakespeare: Warriors, Wounds and Women, gives a very interesting look at the Roman plays, including Julius Caesar, from a feminist perspective. As Shakespearean criticism moves into the twenty-first century, there seems to be a movement towards reexamining Shakespeare in the context in which it was written. Lucius Brutus' servant. Calpurnia Caesar's wife.

Octavius Caesar Julius Caesar's nephew and heir. Portia Brutus' wife. Strato Brutus' servant. Casca A conspirator with Brutus.

Soothsayer A fortune-teller who tries to warn Julius Caesar of his fate. Julius Caesar Roman Emperor. Marcus Brutus A Roman senator. A leader of the conspiracy against Julius Caesar. Decius Brutus A conspirator with Brutus. Cinna A conspirator with Brutus. Metullus Cimber A conspirator with Brutus.

Trebonius A conspirator with Brutus. Caius Cassius A Roman concerned with Caesar's rise to power. A leader of company against Julius Caesar. Cinna A poet fatally confused with Cinna the conspirator. Caius Ligarius A conspirator with Brutus. Speak once again. Soothsayer Beware the ides of March.

Caesar He is a dreamer.

Let us leave him. Two tribunes, Marullus and Flavius, chastise the crowd for adoring Caesar and for celebrating as if it were a holiday.

Rome, a street. Is this a holiday?

What, know you not, Being mechanical, you ought not to walk Upon a labouring day without the sign Of your profession? Speak, what trade art thou? In most productions, they enter first, with Flavius and Marullus following them. Being mechanical: The cobbler puns throughout his speeches. A stronger term for the Elizabethans than for us today. Marullus Where is thy leather apron and thy rule? What dost thou with thy best apparel on? You, sir, what trade are you?

Cobbler Truly sir, in respect of a fine workman, I am but, as you would say, a cobbler. Answer me directly. Cobbler A trade, sir, that I hope I may use with a safe conscience, which is indeed, sir, a mender of bad soles.

Thou naughty knave, what trade? Cobbler Nay, I beseech you sir, be not out with me, yet if thou be out, sir, I can mend you. Mend me, thou saucy fellow? Cobbler Why, sir, cobble you. Cobbler Truly sir, all that I live by is with the awl. When they are in great danger, I recover them. What conquest brings he home? What tributaries follow him to Rome? To grace in captive bonds his chariot wheels?

You blocks, you stones, you worse than senseless things! O you hard hearts, you cruel men of Rome! Knew you not Pompey? Many a time and oft Have you climbed up to walls and battlements, To towers and windows, yea, to chimney tops, Your infants in your arms, and there have sat The livelong day, with patient expectation, To see great Pompey pass the streets of Rome.

And when you saw his chariot but appear, Have you not made an universal shout, That Tiber trembled underneath her banks To hear the replication of your sounds Made in her concave shores? And do you now put-on your best attire? And do you now cull out a holiday? Be gone! Run to your houses, fall upon your knees, Pray to the gods to intermit the plague That needs must light on this ingratitude.

Flavius Go, go, good countrymen, and for this fault Assemble all the poor men of your sort; The cobbler continues to have verbal fun at the expense of Flavius and Marullus.

Cull out: This is meant ironically, since the artisans could not choose their own holidays. Why dost thou lead these men about the streets? Cobbler Truly sir, to wear out their shoes, to get myself into more work. But indeed sir, we make holiday to see Caesar and to rejoice in his triumph. They vanish tongue-tied in their guiltiness. Go you down that way towards the Capitol; This way will I. Disrobe the images If you do find them decked with ceremonies.

Marullus May we do so? You know it is the feast of Lupercal. Flavius It is no matter. So do you too, where you perceive them thick. The crowd of revelers is happy to have a day away from their usual tasks and, because the day is considered a high festival, plenty of government-supplied food and drink is available for all. The Lupercalian holiday, an ancient rite of both purgation and fertility, honored the gods Lupercus and Faunus as well as the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome.

It seems appropriate that Shakespeare chose this particular feast as the setting for the return of Julius Caesar to Rome.

Historically, Caesar returned from Spain in October of 45 B. The merriment of the Roman people is short-lived, however, as the scene is quickly broken up by the intrusion of two Roman Tribunes, Marullus and Flavius. The two men insult the crowd and admonish them for being idle on a workday. Shakespeare often used Elizabethan references in his plays, regardless of the actual timeframe in which the story was taking place, as a way of making his work more accessible to his audience.

This small-scale conflict will be reflected in the next scene when the full-blown conspiracy against Caesar begins to take shape. A relief of Romulus and Remus, from the 1st century, A. There were no towers or chimneys in ancient Rome, but these anachronisms, chronologically misplaced events, words or details, bring the play into alignment with the experiences of the audience for whom the play was written. This image illustrates a theme in Julius Caesar, that blood begets blood.

Shakespeare wrote the majority of his plays in blank verse, but he often changed from verse to prose to indicate the social status of a character. In this scene, the tribunes speak verse and the commoners use prose.

In a delightful bit of wordplay, the Carpenter and the Cobbler frustrate the Tribunes with their evasive puns and bawdy innuendoes.

Puns, a play on words that are spelled or sound the same but have different meanings, have often been called the lowest form of humor, but Elizabethan audiences delighted in them. In general, the crowd is content with the harmony and abundance in their lives and is more concerned with parties than with politics. The conflict between the factions of commoner and official serves two dramatic functions.

First, Shakespeare puts the central conflict of the play into place. The birth of Julius Caesar. Left behind are two men, Brutus and Cassius. While Brutus and Cassius are having this conversation, shouts are heard from offstage. Antony has offered the crown to Caesar and he has refused it in a ploy to make the people of Rome beg him to take the crown.

Instead, the people cheer his decision and Caesar is forced to reject the crown a total of three times. The anger he must suppress causes Caesar to suffer an epileptic seizure.

Julius Caesar Short Summary

The two men agree to meet at a later time to discuss the matter more fully. Rome, a public place. Caesar Calpurnia. Casca Peace, ho! Caesar speaks. Calpurnia Here, my lord. Antony Caesar, my lord?

Caesar Forget not in your speed, Antonius, To touch Calpurnia; for our elders say The barren, touched in this holy chase, 3. Shakespeare occasionally alters the form of names to maintain the rhythm of the iambic pentameter verse.

Here he needs an extra syllable, but compare line , below. Caesar Ha! Who calls? Casca Bid every noise be still. Peace yet again! Caesar Who is it in the press that calls on me? Caesar is turned to hear. Cassius says that Brutus handles him too roughly. Caesar What man is that? Brutus A soothsayer bids you beware the ides of March. Caesar Set him before me; let me see his face.

Cassius I pray you do. Brutus I am not gamesome. I do lack some part Of that quick spirit that is in Antony. Let me not hinder, Cassius, your desires. Cassius Brutus, I do observe you now of late; I have not from your eyes that gentleness And show of love as I was wont to have. You bear too stubborn and too strange a hand Over your friend that loves you. If I have veiled my look, I turn the trouble of my countenance Merely upon myself. Vexed I am Of late with passions of some difference, Conceptions only proper to myself, Which give some soil, perhaps, to my behaviours; But let not therefore my good friends be grieved Among which number, Cassius, be you one Nor construe any further my neglect Than that poor Brutus, with himself at war, Forgets the shows of love to other men.

Cassius Then, Brutus, I have much mistook your passion; By means wherof this breast of mine hath buried Thoughts of great value, worthy cogitations. Tell me, good Brutus, can you see your face?

Act I, Scene 2 40 45 33 37— Except immortal Caesar: And it is very much lamented, Brutus, That you have no such mirrors as will turn Your hidden worthiness into your eye, That you might see your shadow.

Brutus Into what dangers would you lead me, Cassius, That you would have me seek into myself For that which is not in me? Cassius Therefore, good Brutus, be prepared to hear; And since you know you cannot see yourself So well as by reflection, I, your glass, Will modestly discover to yourself That of yourself which you yet know not of.

And be not jealous on me, gentle Brutus. I do fear the people Choose Caesar for their king. Cassius Ay, do you fear it? Then must I think you would not have it so.

Brutus I would not Cassius; yet I love him well. But wherefore do you hold me here so long? What is it that you would impart to me? Cassius I know that virtue to be in you, Brutus, As well as I do know your outward favour. Well, honour is the subject of my story. I cannot tell what you and other men Think of this life; but for my single self, I had as lief not be as live to be In awe of such a thing as I myself. I was borne free as Caesar; so were you.

So indeed he did. The torrent roared, and we did buffet it With lusty sinews, throwing it aside 85 90 95 X ActI. And this man Is now become a god, and Cassius is A wretched creature and must bend his body If Caesar carelessly but nod on him.

He had a fever when he was in Spain, And when the fit was on him, I did mark How he did shake. His coward lips did from their colour fly, And that same eye whose bend doth awe the world Did lose his lustre.

I did hear him groan. Ye gods, it doth amaze me A man of such a feeble temper should So get the start of the majestic world And bear the palm alone. Act I, Scene 2 35 It was erroneously thought that its legs spanned the harbour entrance. I do believe that these applauses are For some new honours that are heaped on Caesar. Cassius Why, man, he doth bestride the narrow world Like a Colossus, and we petty men Walk under his huge legs and peep about To find ourselves dishonourable graves.

Men at some time are masters of their fates. The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, But in ourselves, that we are underlings. Why should that name be sounded more than yours? Write them together: Sound them: Weigh them: It is as heavy.

Age thou art shamed. Rome, thou hast lost the breed of noble bloods. When went there by an age since the great Flood But it was famed with more than with one man? When could they say till now that talked of Rome That her wide walks encompassed but one man? Now is it Rome indeed, and room enough, When there is in it but one only man.

Brutus That you do love me I am nothing jealous. What you would work me to, I have some aim. How I have thought of this, and of these times, I shall recount hereafter. For this present, I would not so with love I might entreat you Be any further moved. What you have said I will consider; what you have to say I will with patience hear, and find a time Both meet to hear and answer such high things.

Till then, my noble friend, chew upon this: Brutus had rather be a villager Than to repute himself a son of Rome Under these hard conditions as this time Is like to lay upon us. Cassius As they pass by, pluck Casca by the sleeve, And he will after his sour fashion tell you What hath proceeded worthy note to-day. Brutus I will do so. But look you, Cassius, X ActI. Act I, Scene 2 37 Caesar Antonius.

Caesar Let me have men about me that are fat, Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep a-nights. Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry look. He thinks too much. Such men are dangerous. He is a noble Roman, and well given.

Caesar Would he were fatter! But I fear him not. Yet if my name were liable to fear, I do not know the man I should avoid So soon as that spare Cassius. He reads much, He is a great observer, and he looks Quite through the deeds of men. He loves no plays As thou dost, Antony; he hears no music. Seldom he smiles, and smiles in such a sort As if he mocked himself and scorned his spirit That could be moved to smile at anything. I rather tell thee what is to be feared Than what I fear; for always I am Caesar.

CASCA remains. Would you speak with me? Brutus Ay, Casca. Tell us what hath chanced to-day That Caesar looks so sad.

Casca Why, you were with him, were you not? Casca Why, there was a crown offered him; and being offered him, he put it by the back of his hand thus; and then the people fell a-shouting.

Casca Why, for that too. Cassius They shouted thrice. What was the last cry for? Brutus Was the crown offered him thrice?

But soft: Casca Why, Antony. Brutus Tell us the manner of it, gentle Casca. Casca I can as well be hanged as tell the manner of it. It was mere foolery; I did not mark it.

Then he offered it to him again; then he put it by again; but to my thinking, he was very loath to lay his fingers off it. And then he offered it the third time. He put it the third time by; and still as he refused it, the rabblement hooted, and clapped their chopt hands, and threw tip their sweaty nightcaps, and uttered such a deal of stinking breath because Caesar refused the crown that it had almost choked Caesar; for he swounded and fell down at it.

And for mine own part, I durst not laugh, for fear of opening my lips and receiving the bad air. Cassius But soft, I pray you. What, did Caesar swound? Cassius is quick to take up the phrase and give it another meaning.

Caesar wants to assure the crowd of his sincerity. Greek to me: In fact, Plutarch says specifically that Casca could speak Greek. In this phrase which has become a part of the language , Shakespeare makes Casca disclaim any knowledge that might make him appear sophisticated or polished.

Casca I know not what you mean by that, but I am sure Caesar fell down. If the rag-tag people did not clap him and hiss him, according as he pleased and displeased them, as they use to do the players in the theatre, I am no true man. Casca Marry, before he fell down, when lie perceived the common herd was glad he refused the crown, he plucked me ope his doublet and offered them his throat to cut.

An I had been a man of any occupation, if I would not have taken him at a word, I would I might go to hell among the rogues. And so he fell.

When he came to himself again, he said, if he had done or said anything amiss, he desired their worships to think it was his infirmity. If Caesar had stabbed their mothers, they would have done no less. Casca Ay. Cassius Did Cicero say anything? Cassius To what effect? But those that understood him smiled at one another and shook their heads; but for mine own part, it was Greek to me.

I could tell you more news too. Fare you well. There was more foolery yet, if I could remember it. Casca No, I am promised forth. Cassius Will you dine with me to-morrow? Casca Ay, if I be alive, and your mind hold, and your dinner worth eating. Lines — have been variously interpreted.

The interpretation is of some importance. The first, which seems also the likeliest, puts Cassius at least at this point in the play in a particularly cynical and cold-blooded light. I will expect you.

Casca Do so. Farewell both. He was quick mettle when he went to school. Cassius So is he now in execution Of any bold or noble enterprise, However he puts on this tardy form. This rudeness is a sauce to his good wit, Which gives men stomach to digest his words With better appetite.

For this time I will leave you. To-morrow, if you please to speak with me, I will come home to you; or if you will, Come home to me, and I will wait for you. Cassius I will do so. Till then, think of the world. Therefore it is meet That noble minds keep ever with their likes; For who so firm that cannot be seduced? Caesar doth bear me hard; but he loves Brutus.

If I were Brutus now and he were Cassius, He should not humour me. And after this let Caesar seat him sure, For we will shake him, or worse days endure. The simplistic beauty of this drama lies in the fact that, just like life off of the stage, politicians and public figures, no matter how the populace chooses to see them, are mere mortals with the same ailments and torments, delusions and misjudgments as the common person.

A great flourish of trumpets signals the arrival of Caesar and his entourage. A large crowd of people that includes both friends and foes accompanies him. Julius Caesar depicted as a deity in his chariot. During the holiday, priests of the Lupercus, dressed in loincloths made of goatskin, sacrificed goats and a dog and smeared themselves with sacrificial blood.

They then ran through the city carrying a goatskin thong, called a februa. Women placed themselves in such a way that the priests could strike them with the februa, thus assuring the women of fertility and easy childbirth.

Indeed, a young, healthy bride should have been able to produce the heir that Caesar surely desires to guarantee the continuation of his reign as leader of Rome. First, he must maintain his own public image by degrading Calpurnia.

In an insensitive and rather humiliating manner, Caesar seems to place the blame for their lack of children on his wife. Just as Caesar makes it obvious that he believes in the superstition attached to the Lupercal to cure Calpurnia of her supposed sterility, the procession is interrupted by the warnings of a soothsayer, a man who sees into the future.

He is a man who will tempt the fates by ignoring the messages passed to him by the soothsayer. In essence, Caesar seems to have put himself on a par with the gods, in control of destiny as opposed to being controlled by it. This arrogance would have been a red flag to Elizabethan audiences that Caesar was setting himself up for a mighty fall from grace.

The references to himself combined with his disregard of prophecy point to the fact that Caesar is actively participating in his own deification. Followed by the crowd, Caesar leaves the stage to watch the race. Two men, Brutus and Cassius, lag behind and, left alone on stage, begin a dialogue that will change the course of history. Marcus Junius Brutus, born in 85 B.

He fought with Pompey in Greece and was taken prisoner when Pompey was defeated. In an effort to heal the wounds of civil war, Caesar pardoned and set free the prisoners of war, including Brutus. Brutus subscribed to the philosophy known as Stoicism, which maintains that the universe is completely rational and guided by fate. Therefore, one must learn X ActI. Virtue, being the attainment of valor, moral excellence, and righteousness, is the only key to a happy life and becomes the ultimate goal of the Stoic; vice is evil and leads only to unhappiness.

Stoicism encourages a man to be centered in his intellect while suppressing his feelings. Unlike the Stoic Brutus, Cassius was an Epicurean.

The philosophy of Epicureanism promoted the notion that freedom from physical pain and mental trouble was the goal of a happy life. Again, virtue, courage, and justice were considered the attributes needed to attain wisdom, but unlike the intellectual center of stoicism, Epicurians felt that knowledge was derived from the senses.

Thus, as Brutus lived in his head, Cassius lived in his heart. Much of the manipulation that occurs in Julius Caesar is achieved by the use of flattery. In this scene, Cassius plies Brutus with praise and compliments. The mirror as a reflection of the moral nature of man was a common literary device in Renaissance literature, and Shakespeare uses this device to hold the mirror up to the moral nature of man on many occasions throughout his plays.

For example, in Julius Caesar, Brutus admits that he is at war against himself. What this internal war consists of is revealed here in Scene 2 when the first flourishes and shouts are heard from the crowd offstage.

Brutus admits that he fears the people have chosen Caesar as their king but, in the same breath, swears that he loves the man.

By the end of his speech, however, it becomes apparent that, for the determinedly Stoic Brutus, love will never conquer or come before the need to maintain honor. At the admission of his fears, Cassius leaps at the opportunity to involve Brutus in the conspiracy against Caesar. In Scene 2, Shakespeare first introduces the image of fire that infuses the play from this point on. Fire, which, like blood, can be either a destructive or a purifying force, represents passion and the ability to inflame or ensite.

In lines —, Brutus personifies the flint that Cassius strikes in an effort to spark some sort of flame to fire the conspiracy against Caesar. When Caesar reenters the stage, the subdued nature of the crowd, the red face of Caesar, and the pale looks of Calpurnia signal that something of significance has transpired offstage while Brutus and Cassius conversed onstage.

Cassius pulls Casca aside to inquire about the events that have just taken place and Caesar notices the men speaking together in whispers. CliffsComplete Julius Caesar In this play, most of what is thought to be known about Caesar is secondhand information passed on by his enemies. Through their eyes, a portrait is drawn of a vain and arrogant man who is weak and unyielding.

Historically, Julius Caesar was recorded to be an intelligent, witty, and charming man. An excellent orator and a brilliant writer, Caesar brought about much needed reforms in the Roman Senate, instituted the first public library, improved the system of taxation, rebuilt cities, and sought to have laws passed that would strengthen the moral fabric of society. The leader is the head of the body politic; the people represent the limbs. Casca reveals to Brutus and Cassius the events that took place off stage and caused such a show of concern from Caesar and his followers.

According to the cynical Casca, speaking in plain and straightforward prose, Antony offered a crown of laurel leaves to Caesar, who, in a show of humility, refused it. Casca agrees to meet with Cassius at a later time.

Brutus also takes his leave with a promise to ponder further the issues the men have been discussing. Left alone on stage, Cassius delivers the first soliloquy of the play. A soliloquy is a dramatic device used to allow a character the opportunity to express the real truth behind his thoughts, feelings, and actions. In this speech, Cassius exposes both his Caesar refusing the crown offered him by Antony. Using a play on words, X ActI. It is now the evening of the Ides of March and a storm rages on Rome.

Casca meets Cicero on the street and tells him of the strange and eerie sights he has seen. Cassius arrives and Casca gives him the news that the Senate means to crown Caesar king the following day.

Now with a heightened sense of urgency, Cassius knows he must pull the forces of the conspiracy together immediately. Brutus must join the conspiracy if it is to be seen as a noble enterprise. Brought you Caesar home? Why are you breathless? Casca Are you not moved when all the sway of earth Shakes like a thing infirm? Either there is a civil strife in heaven, Or else the world, too saucy with the gods, Incenses them to send destruction.

Not sensible: Cicero Why, saw you anything more wonderful? Casca A common slave you know him well by sight Held up his left hand, which did flame and burn Like twenty torches joined; and yet his hand, Not sensible of fire, remained unscorched.

And there were drawn Upon a heap a hundred ghastly women, Transformed with their fear, who swore they saw Men, all in fire, walk up and down the streets. Cicero It is indeed a strange-disposed time But men may construe things after their fashion, Clean from the purpose of the things themselves. Comes Caesar to the Capitol to-morrow? Cicero Good night then, Casca.

Casca Cassius A Roman Casca, by your voice. Casca Your ear is good. Cassius, what night is this! Cassius A very pleasing night to honest men. Casca Who ever knew the heavens menace so? Cassius Those that have known the earth so full of faults.

For my part, I have walked about the streets, Submitting me unto the perilous night, And, thus unbraced, Casca, as you see, Have bared my bosom to the thunder-stone; And when the cross blue lightning seemed to open The breast of heaven, I did present myself Even in the aim and very flash of it.

Casca But wherefore did you so much tempt the heavens? It is the part of men to fear and tremble When the most mighty gods by tokens send Such dreadful heralds to astonish us.

You look pale, and gaze, And put on fear, and cast yourself in wonder, To see the strange impatience of the heavens; But if you would consider the true cause — Why all these fires, why all these gliding ghosts, Why birds and beasts, from quality and kind; Why old men, fools, and children calculate; Why all these things change from their ordinance, Their natures, and preformed faculties.

To monstrous quality — why you shall find That heaven hath infused them with these spirits To make them instruments of fear and warning Unto some monstrous state. Now could I, Casca, name to thee a man Most like this dreadful night That thunders, lightens, opens graves, and roars As doth the lion in the Capitol; A man no mightier than thyself or me In personal action, yet prodigious grown And fearful, as these strange eruptions are.

Is it not, Cassius? Cassius Let it be who it is. For Romans now Have thews and limbs like to their ancestors; But woe the while! Casca Indeed, they say the senators to-morrow Mean to establish Caesar as a king, And he shall wear his crown by sea and land In every place save here in Italy.

Cassius I know where I will wear this dagger then; Cassius from bondage will deliver Cassius. Therein, ye gods, you make the weak most strong; Therein, ye gods, you tyrants do defeat. Nor stony tower, nor walls of beaten brass, Nor airless dungeon, nor strong links of iron, Can be retentive to the strength of spirit; 80 85 90 95 X ActI. If I know this, know all the world besides, That part of tyranny that I do bear I can shake off at pleasure.

Hold, my hand. Be factious for redress of all these griefs, And I will set this foot of mine as far As who goes farthest. So every bondman in his own hand bears The power to cancel his captivity. Cassius And why should Caesar be a tyrant then? Poor man! I know he would not be a wolf But that he sees the Romans are but sheep; He were no lion, were not Romans hinds. Those that with haste will make a mighty fire Behind it with weak straws.

What trash is Rome, What rubbish and what offal, when it serves For the base matter to illuminate So vile a thing as Caesar! But, O grief, Where hast thou led me? I, perhaps, speak this Before a willing bondman. Then I know My answer must be made. But I am armed, And dangers are to me indifferent. Stand close: I do know him by his gait. He is a friend. Cinna, where haste you so?

Cinna To find out you. Metellus Cimber? Cinna No, it is Casca, one incorporate To our attempts. Am I not stayed for, Cinna? What a fearful night is this! Cassius repeats his question. His countenance: Cassius Am I not stayed for? Tell me. Cinna Yes, you are. And throw this In at his window. Is Decius Brutus and Trebonius there? Well, I will hie And so bestow the papers as you bade me. Three parts of him Is ours already, and the man entire Upon the next encounter yields him ours. Cassius Him and his worth and our great need of him You have right well conceited.

Let us go, For it is after midnight; and ere day We will awake him and be sure of him. Whenever Shakespeare uses the word it is associated with the failure, or falsity of this pseudo-science. It is now the eve of the Ides of March, and a storm, unlike any ever seen, is raging in Rome. Fire drops from the skies, bodies spontaneously combust, lions roam the capitol, ghostly women walk the streets, and the night owl was seen shrieking in the daylight.

Casca enters with his sword drawn and his fright is apparent as he encounters Cicero. Despite his excellent reputation and acclaimed achievements, Cicero was feared by Julius Caesar who made things so difficult for Cicero in Rome that he was driven out of Italy in 59 B. Cicero joined forces with Pompey, but when it became clear that Pompey was going to be defeated, Cicero pleaded for mercy from Caesar, and as was his habit, Caesar pardoned Cicero.

Unlike our modern theatres, with computerized special effects and state of the art sound systems, the Elizabethan theatre relied mainly on words to paint the scenery and suggest the sounds of thunder and lightning. Elizabethan stagehands were not without a certain amount of clever inventiveness, however, and some sound and lighting effects could be created. For example, beating drums or rolling large round bullets backstage often produced the sound of thunder. The effect of lightning could be contrived by blowing rosin through a candle flame to create a bright flash of fire.

Shakespeare, like many other writers, uses storms to create a mood of darkness and foreboding, but here he takes the image one step further. The turmoil of the heavens is directly representative of the turmoil present in the state and in the minds of men.

The raging storm, coupled with the eerie sights that Casca describes, are signs of disharmony in heaven and on earth. Signs and omens, by their very nature, are meant to be interpreted and the misinterpretation and manipulation of signs and omens become important thematic issues in Julius Caesar.

He fears that the gods do not approve of what the conspirators are planning to do and feels that the omens bode only evil and misfortune. In the face of the irate heavens, Casca loses his use of sarcastic prose and begins to speak in blank verse. The imagery of the storm as Casca describes it in lines 3—11 is infused with metaphorical references to Caesar.

Historically, Caesar had called the senate into an emergency session set to meet on March Caesar might have instigated the session to have the Senate approve a declaration of war against the Parthenians. However, some historians speculate that he was to be made King of the Provinces with the anticipation that, as the outlying cities of Italy accepted Caesar as King, the city of Rome would quickly follow. If the conspirators intend to stop Caesar before he is crowned, they must do it tomorrow before the Senate has the opportunity to convene.

Cassius is disgusted by what he interprets as the apathy of the Roman people, whom he sees as mere sheep that would blindly follow their leader into whatever dangers he might lead them. Metaphorically, Cassius sees the commoners as trash and rubbish.

Caesar had appointed Trebonius chief magistrate of Rome, an influential and honorable position.Roman military and political power stretched across most of the Mediterranean, but its legal structure and political institutions remained those of a city-state, with decisions concentrated on a limited number of organs and people.

Many ordinary readers assume that there is a single text for the plays: So indeed he did. It was not his personal interest that was at stake. Julius Caesar; William Shakespeare.

After the speech of Mark Antony, the conspirators flee from Rome, afraid of the people. Had I as many eyes as thou hast wounds, Weeping as fast as they stream forth thy blood, It would become me better than to close In terms of friendship with thine enemies. Ben Johnson William Shakespeare was born in and died in , at age Roman law: an historical introduction.